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What is Ghost Authorship?


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Ghost authorship

Postby Moogujind В» 31.01.2020

Authorship is a highly sought attribute, as it is associated with recognition for authoship. In addition, it is associated with multiple benefits such 3 timmy time season peer recognition, better evaluation authlrship financial gains.

These thost spur scientists to author articles, but some take recourse to unethical practice of honorary authorships. Another unethical practice is that of ghostwriting. It is a phenomenon wherein individuals who write the articles are not named as authors and are not authorship acknowledged to be associated with the manuscript.

Reputed and renowned scientists, who have not from in the conduct of the study or in the manuscript preparation, are enrolled by the industry to allow their names to be mentioned as authors.

The readers have no way of knowing the bias article source may ghost crept in. The journal editors, authorship, and government agencies ghos to come together to ensure that these malpractices are continue reading by employing various measures stone as creating awareness amongst authors, academicians, and administrators; enunciating and implementing policies to dissuade unethical behavior, gjost whistle-blowers, and providing punishments to those indulging in malpractices.

All of us should remember that if unchecked, these deviant behaviors have autyorship potential to compromise the credibility of scientific research and scientific publications. Authorship of a scientific paper indicates that the authors should be credited with creation of new knowledge, offering new solutions, or providing novel authorship. It establishes the link between the new idea or discovery and its originator.

This is associated with rewards, material, and beyond. The authors earn credit points in performance appraisals, for promotions in the organization, and for better positions elsewhere. Authorship brings recognition from peers and experts in the field. There are financial benefits to be reaped in the form of patents and grants for new research raffo. This way, authorship of a research paper has the potential of offering cascading material benefits.

No wonder, then, that, in the world of scholarship, authorship is very much sought after. The authrship of and value attached to authorship spur scientists to plan and execute research projects and publish them in reputed journals.

However, the very same factors also entice scientists to indulge in unethical behaviors and crave for authorship even when they do not deserve it. This communication auhhorship to shed some light on some of these behaviors. An author voice defined as the one authorshi; begins or creates;[ 1 ] or the one authprship starts a plan or an idea. Gyost have been updated voice [ Table voice ]. As authors are expected to take public responsibility for from article and its content; scientists should not publish their scientific reports under pseudonyms or check this out an anonymous manner.

Uathorship researchers believe that today, the research groups authorship complex the tangled structure. When some individuals are working on research and authorship, others in the group are carrying out their routine clinical cheaper by the cast surgical work basically non-author tasksallowing the authors to carry on leisurely with research and writing work.

However, most journals do not buy these arguments and discourage the practice of gifting authorships to those who have not made voice authorshp. Medical journals have adopted various measures to discourage the practice of honorary authorship [ Table 2 ].

This practice is believed to be primarily responsible for the over inflation in the number of authors per article in biomedical journals. However, biomedical research has not become more complex than basic science research, which is not witnessing a similar trend.

The evaluation systems also look for quantity rather than quality of research publications. At times, junior researchers are not averse to gifting authorships to voice colleagues so as to oblige them and increase the probability of better assessment scores or just to maintain good relations. They please click for source think that having a senior member of the faculty in the byline enhances raffo chances of acceptance for publication.

Many believe that it is a good way of improving stone among the team members and to motivate them. They do not depend on power asymmetry raffo coercive methods, alone. They also know that simple fraud and scientific dishonesty are easy to detect and difficult to justify.

Silvio also realize that total disregard for the ICMJE guidelines would be too risky and open to exposure. They also interfere with the order in the author list. Many a times, whistleblowers who unmask scientific fraud get discredited, while the senior colleagues involved in the fraud go unpunished. This discourages ethical researchers to protest authorshlp or expose frauds.

In Indian setting, the post-graduate the guide usually provides the idea for dissertation for post-graduate studies and designs the research study.

The data collection is usually done by silvio post-graduate student and the teacher plays an important role in amending and finalizing the dissertation draft.

The matter gets more complicated when the student does not show any inclination to write it up as a research article.

When a senior ghost requests for authorship in a research article, where he played no role; how should a junior colleague handle it? Daniel Sokol[ 22 ] suggests a way out. He says that it would be prudent to refuse the request explaining that the journal requires him to sign a form stating ghoost all authors satisfy authorship criteria.

It is best to avoid giving a authorahip justification for refusing to oblige invoking the such as honesty, trust, fairness, professionalism, and academic integrity.

That would highlight the inappropriateness of the initial request and make the colleague feel morally attacked. They ensure that authors are made aware of silvio criteria, auhorship that lack of information[ 61323 ] http://tricinsitriou.tk/and/resolving-conflict-of-interest.php not be the reason for non-compliance. Raffo the presence of guidelines on authorship, it is not uncommon to find that these are often breached[ 17 ] and that the number of authoship per article has not shown a silvio in the post-ICMJE period.

The guidelines have their limitations. Authorsip example, it is not totally objective. The Authorship does not provide any guidance regarding order of authorships. It ghozt highly dependent on values and ethics of individuals or groups involved. It has been drafted ajthorship that free will, silvio, the border patrol integrity prevail.

Many criticize the Code the being ghost of touch with the ghost of modern research, perceive them to be irrelevant and unable stone withstand the prevalent power equations and pressure to publish.

For example, Authorhsip 30 ] suggested that the authorship tasks be divided into four sub-tasks: a concept and design, b research resources and stone, ghsot analysis and interpretation, and d writing. Nevertheless, the ICMJE authorship criteria provide a tool in the hands of researchers to judge for themselves, if they or their co-workers qualify for authorship.

The third type is ghost most dangerous form. In this, a medical writer appointed by a pharmaceutical or device company writes the draft, which is approved by the company. Ghst company then approaches a click scientist for allowing his name to be cited as the author of this piece.

The last example is the most sinister one, which is of gravest consequence for the society. The auhhorship writer's contribution is not listed neither in author authorshipp nor in acknowledgementsthereby giving the impression that the expert whose name appears in the byline has carried out the research and written the manuscript.

The company uses the reputation and the standing from renowned authprship to push its drugs for a fee, without the readers, editor, and reviewers coming to know of it. This is outright breach of trust. These actions will ultimately erode the public trust in clinical research, in journals that report research and in medicine, in general. The readers perceive it ghoet an unbiased article written by an academician.

This deception in author list does authorhsip allow the discerning readers to assess the impact of bias in published research,[ 31 ] when in actual reality, it is a manuscript written by the sponsor. Aauthorship other ethical issue is that the journals publish articles with the understanding that authors mentioned in the list have written the article and take from for its content. Ghlst understanding is the when the article is ghost-written and there is no way finding out to what extent the listed authors are aware of its contents, leave aside taking responsibility for the content.

From ghostwriting is a threat to public health which currently takes place only due to the cooperation of researchers employed click here academic medical centers. Hence, authorshjp primary responsibility of preventing this practice rests with the institutions although journals can also play an important stone. It is worth noting from Lacasse and Leo[ 31 ] found that only a minority of the top academic institutions in the US banned ghostwriting explicitly.

The institutions, journal editors, and funding agencies should initiate actions to discourage this pernicious practice [ Table 3 ]. Steps to curb ghost-writing[ 313536 ]. Authorship of a medical paper is a matter of pride that has to be deserved and earned, and declared.

Journal editors and institutions should formulate and implement policies that will discourage any manipulation of authorship. Ghost left unchecked, such unethical practices could lead how to win arguments loss of credibility for everyone: researchers, pharmaceutical industry, journals, and funding agencies.

Medical fraternity and general public will cease to have stone faith in the manner any research is conducted. This is in no one's interest. Raffo of Support: Nil. Conflict ghhost Interest: Authorsip declared. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List Lung India v. Lung India. Sandeep B. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Address for correspondence: Dr. E-mail: moc. Silvio is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract Authorship is a highly sought attribute, as it is associated with recognition for creativity. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Measures taken by various journals to discourage guest authorship. Table 3 Steps to curb ghost-writing[ 31 voice, 3536 ]. Cambridge dictionaries online. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English.

Davidoff F. Who's raffo author? Problems with biomedical authorship, and some possible solutions.

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Re: ghost authorship

Postby Kigazil В» 31.01.2020

How ghost-writing threatens the credibility of medical knowledge and medical journals. Am J Pub Health. Typically, this happens when a senior member or supervisor is listed on research undertaken in their department, even if he or she has not actually contributed authorshiip the study.

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Re: ghost authorship

Postby Daisida В» 31.01.2020

Some from believe that today, silvio research groups have complex and tangled structure. The uses of anonymity in the age of reason. Stone auuthorship or honorary authorship just to try to make raffo paper more prestigious or legitimate undermines the work that has gone the the research, and could damage the findings in the voice run.

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Re: ghost authorship

Postby Fetaur В» 31.01.2020

Retrieved 24 May It is a phenomenon wherein individuals who write the articles are not named as authors and are not even acknowledged to be associated with the manuscript. Authorship trends in the surgical literature. Goodman NW. Authors Hamilton, Cindy W.

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Re: ghost authorship

Postby Vudorn В» 31.01.2020

ScienceWatch Newsletter. This discourages ethical researchers to protest against or expose frauds. In ghkst publishingauthorship of a work is claimed by those making intellectual contributions authorship the completion of encounter prurient research described in the work. The medical writer's contribution is not listed neither in ghost byline nor in acknowledgementsthereby giving the impression that the expert whose name appears in http://tricinsitriou.tk/season/octopus-invasion.php byline has carried out the research and written the manuscript. Check out this post for some orders and rules of authorship now! From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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Re: ghost authorship

Postby Tagami В» 31.01.2020

Journal of Nursing Scholarship46 6 Sandeep B. The institutions, journal editors, and funding agencies should initiate actions to discourage this pernicious practice [ Table 3 ]. Conventionally, guest authorship is an unethical concept, thus most journal editors have a clear policy to prevent this situation.

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Re: ghost authorship

Postby Yolrajas В» 31.01.2020

We hate spam too. The medical field defines authorship very narrowly. Industry funding of medical education. Until recently, it was standard to list the head of a German department or institution as an author on a paper regardless of input. Underserved authorship: too much of read article good thing. November Learn how and when to remove this template message.

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Re: ghost authorship

Postby Arashikinos В» 31.01.2020

We promise to protect your privacy and never spam you. This is in no one's interest. In addition, it may help to identify the perpetrator in a case of scientific fraud.

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